Main and auxiliary self-sealing fuel tanks were placed under the cockpit, giving a total fuel capacity of 305 US gal (254 imp gal; 1,155 l). Production plans were shelved in favor of another P-47 development, the Republic XP-72. [32] The fighters were assigned to high-altitude air defense over major cities in rear areas. The conventional three-bladed propeller could not efficiently utilize the power of the new engine, and a four-bladed propeller was adopted. Some P-47 pilots claimed to have broken the sound barrier, but later research revealed that because of the pressure buildup inside the pitot tube at high speeds, airspeed readings became unpredictably exaggerated. ", "Achtung! P-47 Thunderbolt “Miss Fine” and Capt Fred J. Christensen 62nd FS, 56th FG P-47 Thunderbolt 7U-N serial 42-28947, named “Maj Mac” of the 36th FG, 23rd Fighter Squadron P-47 Thunderbolt 42-75087 of the 27th Air Transport Group at Dijon September 1944 [42], The P-47 proved to be a formidable fighter-bomber due to its good armament, heavy bomb load and ability to survive enemy fire. See more ideas about p 47 thunderbolt, thunderbolt, wwii aircraft. France, the United Kingdom, the Soviet Union, Mexico and Brazil also operated the P-47. Focke-Wulf 190's "[38] (Blakeslee's early-model P-47C had not been fitted with the new paddle blade propeller). With the end of World War II, orders for 5,934 were cancelled. But Goodson learned to appreciate the P-47's potential: "There were many U.S. pilots who preferred the P-47 to anything else: they do not agree that the (Fw) 190 held an overall edge against it."[39]. It was able to do everything Kartveli had hoped, and achieved a greater than expected speed of 412 mph (663 kph).5 Numerous problems were encountered during development, such as excessive control loads at high altitude and the canopy could not be opened at altitudes above 30,000 ft. Corrections included: balance panels to reduce rudder loads; blunt nose ailerons; a jettisonable sliding canopy to replace the hinged cockpit door; and all-metal flight controls to replace the fabric covered controls used on the prototype.6 (It was found during testing that the fabric flight controls would balloon out due to changes in atmospheric pressure.) [22] During Operation Cobra, in the vicinity of Roncey, P-47 Thunderbolts of the 405th Fighter group destroyed a German column of 122 tanks, 259 other vehicles, and 11 artillery pieces.[23]. It was huge; the British pilots joked that a Thunderbolt pilot could defend himself from a Luftwaffe fighter by running around and hiding in the fuselage. The P-47's initial success in combat was primarily due to tactics, using rolls (the P-47 had an excellent roll rate) and energy-saving dive and zoom climbs from high altitude to outmaneuver German fighters. At this altitude, this airspeed would put them beyond the speed of sound, but this would only be indicated airspeed since the terminal velocity of the P-47 is 600 mph,10 and the airspeed indicator was a straight pitot-static system with no air data computer for altitude and temperature correction. Spitfire Kurt Bühligen, a high-scoring German fighter ace with 112 victories, recalled: The P-47 was very heavy, too heavy for some maneuvers. The change to the Thunderbolt might have been necessary militarily, but my heart remained with the With increases in fuel capacity as the type was refined, the range of escort missions over Europe steadily increased until the P-47 was able to accompany bombers in raids all the way into Germany. Spitfires in turns. [28] In the early 1980s, this unit was awarded the "Presidential Unit Citation" by the American government in recognition for its achievements in World War II. At the time of the Thunderbolt's European debut, radial-engined single-seat fighters were a rarity, the only other such fighter operational in Europe being the The P-47 design team headed by Alexander Kartveli, Republic Aircraft Corporation's chief engineer, originally presented a design that was to be powered by a 1,150 hp Later was received the code 7+9 while under evaluation at, 85 units 1st Brazilian Fighter Group, 1944–1954. To reduce the size and weight of the undercarriage struts and so that wing-mounted machine guns could be fitted, each strut was fitted with a mechanism by which it telescoped out 9 in (23 cm) while they extended. P-47 Thunderbolt er et amerikansk jagerfly, bygget af Republic.. P-47 Thunderbolt er et af de mest kendte og mest robuste amerikanske fly fra 2. verdenskrig, hvor det blev anvendt af US Army Air Forces og RAF som jagerfly og jagerbomber.. P-47 Thunderbolt blev bl.a. With its high service ceiling, the P-47 was superior to fighters operating on the Eastern front, yielding a higher speed above 30,000 feet (9,100 m). P-47 pilots claimed 20 Luftwaffe Messerschmitt Me 262 jet fighters and four Arado Ar 234 jet bombers in aerial combat. In the end our headquarters issued an order banning mock dog fighting in Thunderbolts below 8,000 feet. France, the United Kingdom, the Soviet Union, Mexico and Brazil also operated the P-47. Since it was almost twice as heavy as its opponents, it exhibited a poor rate of climb, but had other advantages that more than compensated where it was lacking. Lake, Jon. Allison V-1710-39 Republic tried to improve the design, proposing the XP-47A but this failed. He said he had a surprise for us. At the end of the war, Soviet units held 188 P-47s. Kartveli said, "It will be a dinosaur, but it will be a dinosaur with good proportions". It was used in a Nazi propaganda film. Before the war was over, a total of 15,579 Thunderbolts were built, about two-thirds of which reached operational squadrons overseas. • Armor plating to protect the pilot. Although there were minor problems, such as some cockpit smoke that turned out to be due to an oil drip, the aircraft proved impressive in its early trials. The Republic P-47 was the successor of a line of airplanes derived from the However, the P-47B's range was not adequate for escort duties and its maneuverability at low and medium altitude was poor. [31] In mid-1943, the Soviet high command showed an interest in the P-47B. "Pushing The Envelope With Test Pilot Herb Fisher". P-47D Thunderbolt "Hairless Joe" Camo 1500mm (59") Wingspan - ARF from Nexa - NXA1002-001. "P-47" (in Italian). However, they were not well liked, as the Italian pilots were used to much lighter aircraft and found the controls too heavy. To illustrate the rapidity of the increase in airspeed of the P-47 in a high speed dive, an event occurred during testing on November 13, 1942 by Lieutenant Harold Comstock and Roger Dyar of the 63rd Fighter Group who were performing a test level run at 30,000 feet at over 400 mph. Although the Thunderbolt was certainly big, making it the largest and heaviest WWII single engined single-seat fighter ever built, its sheer size was not to prove detrimental to the Thunderbolt's subsequent operational career. It was armed with an impressive eight .50-caliber machine guns with 425 rounds per gun. [45] The adoption of the triple-tube M10 rocket launcher[46] with M8 high-explosive 4.5 in (110 mm) rockets (each with an explosive force similar to a 105 mm artillery shell)—much as the RAF's Hawker Typhoon gained when first fitted with its own two quartets of underwing RP-3 rockets for the same purposes—significantly increased the P-47's ground attack capability. When fully loaded, the P-47 weighed up to eight tons, making it one of the heaviest fighters of the war. Other media include Thunderbolt, a 1947 color documentary film directed by John Sturges and William Wyler, featuring James Stewart and Lloyd Bridges and narrated by Robert Lowery. Its primary armament was eight .50-caliber machine guns, and in the fighter-bomber ground-attack role it could carry five-inch rockets or a bomb load of 2,500 lb (1,100 kg). The Thunderbolt was given German markings. YF+U is the Ex-358 FS plane. The initial Thunderbolt flyers, 56th Fighter Group, was sent overseas to join the 8th Air Force. providing the necessary tankage for the quantities of fuel stipulated to make the machine the first true single-engined strategic fighter. One of the deadliest ground-attack platforms of World War II, the P-47 Thunderbolt saw extensive action in the European, Pacific and China-Burma-India theaters of operation. On the way back from the raids, pilots shot up ground targets of opportunity, and also used belly shackles to carry bombs on short-range missions, which led to the realization that the P-47 could perform a dual-function on escort missions as a fighter-bomber. The Republic P-47 Thunderbolt, or "Jug" as it was known, was one of the main US Army Air Force (USAAF) fighters of World War II.The P-47 was a big, rugged, overbuilt aircraft that was effective in air combat but proved particularly useful as a fighter-bomber. The guns were staggered to allow feeding from side-by-side ammunition boxes, each with 350 rounds. The P-47 Thunderbolt was a World War II fighter aircraft built by Republic Aviation from 1941 to 1945. Il progetto del Thunderbolt cominciò nel 1939, quando gli Stati Uniti erano ancora spettatori della guerra inizialmente confinata in Europa. [16] Although the North American P-51 Mustang replaced the P-47 in the long-range escort role in Europe, the Thunderbolt still ended the war with 3,752 air-to-air kills claimed in over 746,000 sorties of all types, at the cost of 3,499 P-47s to all causes in combat. She was a dream to handle in the air. T9+FK was the second of two P-47s used by 2/Versuchsverband Ob.d.L. [34], Initial response to the P-47 praised its dive speed and high-altitude performance while criticizing its turning performance and rate of climb (particularly at low-to-medium altitudes). The Republic P-47 Thunderbolt is a World War II-era fighter aircraft produced by the In total 15,636 were built between 1941 and 1945. See more ideas about thunderbolt, p 47 thunderbolt, fighter jets. One day in January 1943, General Hunter, the Commander of the 8th Fighter Command, came to visit us at Debden. Since this phenomena was not unique only to the P-47, later model airspeed indicators showed airspeeds up to 700 mph. P-47s served as spotters for rescue aircraft such as the OA-10 Catalina and Boeing B-17H. The P-47 Thunderbolt is Extremely Durable Lieutenant Q Aanenson, a member of the American 9th Airforce, returns his plane to base with a collapsed undercarriage after being hit by flak, 26th August 1944. We were horrified at the thought of going to war in such a machine: we had enough trouble with the The Aviation History Online Museum. Many RC P-47 Thunderbolt versions are described, along with a brief history of the full size Republic P-47 and links to the best WW2 warbirds sites, featuring the P-47. The Czech composer Bohuslav Martinu, while in residence in the US wrote an orchestral scherzo in 1945 entitled P-47 Thunderbolt (H 309) in tribute to the aircraft and its role in World War II. The first P-47 combat mission took place 10 March 1943 when the 4th FG took their aircraft on a fighter sweep over France. The large P-47 Thunderbolt turbo-supercharger was stowed internally in the rear fuselage, with a large air intake duct mounted under the engine, together with the engine oil coolers. Less than half reached operational units, and they were rarely used in combat. Thunderbolts remained in RAF service until October 1946. Colonel J.L. P-47s flew more than 546,000 combat sorties between March 1943 and August 1945, destroying 11,874 enemy aircraft, some 9,000 locomotives and about 6,000 armored vehicles and tanks. P-47 Thunderbolt with four-bladed propeller Republic P-47 all metal finish, at airfield P-47 Thunderbolt flying low over farmland 15,700 planes produced, starting in March, 1942. [Note 2] Both had fled from their homeland, Tbilisi, in Georgia to escape the Bolsheviks. The air-conditioned cockpit was roomy and the pilot's seat was comfortable—"like a lounge chair", as one pilot later put it. The unit claimed 677.5 air victories and 311 ground kills, at the cost of 128 aircraft. Outside air is directed through the compressor and delivered to the engine intake. [citation needed], P-47s were operated by several Allied air arms during World War II. The XP-47B was very heavy compared with contemporary single-engined fighters, with an empty weight of 9,900 lb (4,500 kg), or 65 per cent more than the YP-43. The turbosupercharger in the P-47 gave the powerplant its maximum power at 27,000 ft (8,200 m) and, in the thin air above 30,000 ft (9,100 m), the Thunderbolt remained fast and nimble compared to other aircraft. [11], The XP-47B first flew on 6 May 1941 with Lowry P. Brabham at the controls. colleagues would be able to take evasive action, when attacked by undoing their harnesses and dodging about the fuselages of their huge mounts. • A minimum of 315 gallons of fuel. The P-47B entered USAAF service in November 1942, becoming officially operational with the Eighth Air Force stationed in the UK on April 8, 1943. [18] Lieutenant Colonel Francis S. Gabreski scored 28 victories,[19] Captain Robert S. Johnson scored 27 (with one unconfirmed probable kill leading to some giving his tally as 28),[20] and 56th FG Commanding Officer Colonel Hubert Zemke scored 17.75 kills. By mid-1943, the Jug was also in service with the 12th Air Force in Italy[15] and against the Japanese in the Pacific, with the 348th Fighter Group flying missions out of Port Moresby, New Guinea. The latter was a lightweight aircraft powered by the Allison V-1710 liquid-cooled V-12 engine and armed with two .50 in (12.7 mm) M2 Browning machine guns mounted in the nose and four .30 in (7.62 mm) M1919 Browning machine guns mounted in the wings. Republic P-47 Thunderbolt The Seven Ton Milk Jug This provided a decisive method of breaking off combat when necessary, but at low and medium altitudes it could not match the rate of climb or maneuverability of German fighters. By mid-1943, improved P-47Cs were becoming available with external fuel tanks to increase range and a longer fuselage to improve maneuverability. Also one would have to wonder how this airspeed was calculated since the early P-47 airspeed indicators only went up to 500 mph. requested by the USAAF. Personer som köpte denna produkt köpte också. The North American P-51 Mustang was used by the USAF, mainly in the close air support role. The P-47 was one of the toughest planes in use in World War 2, and this side-scrolling shoot 'em up puts you in control of one as you take on hordes of Nazis. The final version, the P-47N, was built primarily for use against the Japanese in the Pacific theater. The Full Size P-47 Thunderbolt The P-47 Thunderbolt was affectionately referred to as the "Jug", a … [32], The Luftwaffe operated at least one captured P-47. The fastest model was the XP-47J, which did not go into production. The P-47 Thunderbolt was designed by Alexander Kartveli, a man of Georgian descent. [9] The complicated turbosupercharger system with its ductwork gave the XP-47B a deep fuselage, and the wings had to be mounted in a relatively high position. In total 15,636 were built between 1941 and 1945. The XP-47A, which had little in common with the new design, was abandoned. One of the outstanding features of the P-47 was its remarkable acceleration when the aircraft was put into a dive. ", "1º Grupo de Caça da Força Aérea Brasileira" (Brazilian Air Force 1st Fighter Squadron), List of surviving Republic P-47 Thunderbolts, List of military aircraft of the United States, "Alexander de Seversky, Russian Ace of World War One, Aircraft Designer & Founder of Republic Aviation. [Note 6] With eight .50 in (13 mm) machine guns, the P-47 carried more firepower than other single-engined American fighters. "Aztec Eagle – P-47D of the Mexican Expeditionary Air Force". in our nimble Spitfire Vs—now this lumbering seven-ton The war was moving on and we had to move with it. By Cory Graff Air & Space Magazine, "P-47 Thunderbolt Named Official State Aircraft of Indiana", "Design Analysis of the P-47 Thunderbolt", WWII P-47 pilots' Encounter Reports (4th, 56th, 78th, 352nd, 353rd, 355th, 361st FGs), How to Fly the P-47: Pilot Familiarization. However, mistakes in aircraft recognition were common while making split-second decisions in the frantic pace of combat. The P-47 Thunderbolt, nicknamed the Jug, served the United States Army Air Forces (USAAF) in World War II with distinction. As a testament to the survivability of the P-47, it should be noted that the top ten aces who flew the P-47 returned home safely. In the spring of 1940, Republic and the USAAC concluded that the XP-44 and the XP-47 were inferior to Luftwaffe fighters. After the first run, they put their P-47Cs into a dive to go to the next level for testing and during the dive, the airplane's speed increased very rapidly. Focke-Wulf Fw 190A. Shown is a XP-47N fitted with a bubble canopy. It certainly can't climb. The Jug … [43] The Thunderbolt's eight .50 in (12.7 mm) machine guns were capable against lightly armored targets, although less so than cannon-armed aircraft of the day. Kartveli then designed a much larger fighter, which was offered to the USAAC in June 1940. Republic P-47 Thunderbolt (lempiniminä ”T-bolt”, ”Jug” ’ruukku, tonkka’ tai ”Juggernaut”) oli yhdysvaltalainen, toisen maailmansodan aikainen yksimoottorinen ja -paikkainen hävittäjälentokone.Venäläis-amerikkalaisten Alexander de Severskyn ja Alexander Kartvelin suunnittelema yksinkertainen ja vahvarakenteinen kone saattoi saavuttaa syöksyissä lähes … She was such a gentle little airplane, without a trace of viciousness. If a conventional undercarriage were to be employed, its suspension would have been too far outboard to permit the wing installation of the guns and ammunition [10] The armament was eight .50 caliber (12.7 mm) "light-barrel" Browning AN/M2 machine guns, four in each wing. The first tasks of the Thunderbolt were high-altitude escort duties and fighter sweeps in which the new aircraft acquitted itself well, despite the inexperience of its pilots. They appreciated the high production standards and rational design well-suited to mass production, and the high reliability of the hard-hitting Browning machine guns. U.S. Air Force photo “It was a beautiful specimen of the great Thunderbolt fighter , almost factory-fresh in the Pacific sunshine, resplendent with an all-yellow tail assembly including fin and elevators, and a yellow ring around its engine cowling. Therefore, Kartveli had to design a telescopic landing gear which was nine inches shorter retracted, than when extended. By the late 1950s the P-47 was considered obsolete but were well suited for COIN tasks. Post-war RAF Thunderbolts were used in support of the Dutch attempts to reassert control of Batavia. Zemke flew a P-38 for three of his kills. Marine Corps fighters, the Grumman F6F Hellcat and the Vought F4U Corsair. It's one main shortcoming was that of insufficient range to permit deep penetration into Germany, but means were already being sought to add to the P-47B's 305 US gallons of internal fuel. In mid-1944, 200 P-47D-22-REs and P-47D-27-REs were ferried to the USSR via Iraq and Iran. All results related to republic p-47 thunderbolt 1:32* found on 80 scale modeling websites and the scalemates kit database. The P-47 Thunderbolt, nicknamed the Jug, served the United States Army Air Forces (USAAF) in World War II with distinction. On August 4, 1944, this plane reached a level speed of 504 mph. The P-47 was not deployed to Korea for the Korean War. With no need for another high-altitude fighter, the RAF adapted their Thunderbolts for ground attack, a task for which the type was well suited. When we strapped into a Spitfire we felt snug and part of the aircraft—the Thunderbolt cockpit, on the other hand, was so large that we felt if we slipped off the goddamned seat we would break a leg! "P-47 Thunderbolt Part 1: Early development and combat in the ETO". "P-47" redirects here. The P-47M version was used for anti V1 Flying Bomb duties. Small numbers of P-47s were also provided to China, Iran, Turkey and Yugoslavia. P-47 Thunderbolt (5) 15min 2010 13+ The Thunderbolt was one of the heaviest (10,000 pounds empty), but one of the fastest (433 mph) planes of WWII, and could climb up to 41,000 feet. Nevertheless, the stability, payload and high speed were appreciated. • Armament of six .50 caliber machine guns, preferably eight. It was recaptured in Göttingen in 1944 when the Germans were forced to make a rapid withdrawal to. The principle behind a supercharger is that the exhaust gas is directed to a turbine that has a shared axle with a centrifugal impeller. Those squadrons not disbanded outright after the war re-equipped with British-built aircraft such as the Hawker Tempest.[27]. Director Lawrence Bond depicted the last months of World War II over Germany as told by four P-47 pilots of the 362nd Fighter Group using original, all color 1945 footage. [Note 5] Despite being the sole remaining P-47 group in the 8th Air Force, the 56th FG remained its top-scoring group in aerial victories throughout the war. In spite of its early shortcomings, the P-47 at least showed promise as a measure of real protection for Allied bombers which had previously suffered very heavy losses. The loss of the AP-4 prototype to an engine fire ended Kartveli's experiments with tight-fitting cowlings, so the engine was placed in a broad cowling that opened at the front in a "horse collar"-shaped ellipse. This allows the engine to deliver more power as the airplane gains altitude in the thinner air of the upper atmosphere. In poor weather on 7 November 1943 while flying a P-47D-2-RA on a bomber escort mission, 2nd Lt. William E. Roach of 358th Fighter Squadron, 355th Fighter Group made an emergency landing on a German airfield. More than 400,000 of the 16 million Americans who served in WWII perished during the conflict, and 72,766 remain missing . With the addition of long-range drop tanks, it proved to be a successful escort fighter for … Focke-Wulf Fw 190A. At full power, the pipes glowed red at their forward ends and the turbine spun at 21,300 rpm. A Republic P-47 Thunderbolt (magyarul Villámcsapás) amerikai vadászrepülőgép volt a második világháború során. However, the P-51D was available in greater numbers in the USAF and ANG inventories.[25]. fighter pilots banteringly suggested that their American P-47 Thunderbolt in action. Johnson scored 27 kills in the P-47 while flying with the 56th Fighter Group. Even now, thirty years after I flew them on operations, the mere sound or sight of a Spitfire brings me a deep feeling of nostalgia and many pleasant memories. The Thunderbolt was effective as a short-to medium-range escort fighter in high-altitude air-to-air combat and ground attack in both the European and Pacific theaters. By 1944, the Thunderbolt was in combat with the USAAF in all its operational theaters except Alaska. Masefield, Peter. By the end of 1942, P-47Cs were sent to England for combat operations. The P-47 was one of the main United States Army Air Forces (USAAF) fighters of World War II, and also served with other Allied air forces, including those of France, the United Kingdom, and the Soviet Union. [8] The United States Army Air Corps (USAAC) backed the project and gave it the designation XP-47. Most importantly, the P-47 served as an excellent transition platform to heavier jet fighters, including the F-84 Thunderjet, starting in 1953.[30]. Three P-47D-10-REs were ferried to the Soviet Air Forces (VVS) via Alaska in March 1944. monster seemed infinitely worse, a true air inferiority fighter. The armored cockpit was relatively roomy and comfortable and the bubble canopy introduced on the P-47D offered good visibility. The Thunderbolts were armed with three 500 lb (230 kg) bombs or, in some cases, British "60 lb (27 kg)" RP-3 rocket projectiles. More photos P-47 of the 325th Fighter Group 345th Fighter Squadron, 350th Fighter Group, 12th Air Force. [24] The P-47 continued serving with the U.S. Army Air Forces through 1947, the USAAF Strategic Air Command from 1946 through 1947, the active duty United States Air Force until 1949, and with the Air National Guard until 1953, receiving the designation F-47 in 1948. The Republic P-47 Thunderbolt was the largest, heaviest, and most expensive fighter aircraft in history to be powered by a single piston engine.. As the P-47 Thunderbolt worked up to operational status, it gained a nickname: the "Jug" (because its profile was similar to that of a common milk jug of the time). These aircraft saw extensive action in France and Germany and again in the 1950s during the Algerian War of Independence. [40] The Thunderbolt was the fastest-diving American aircraft of the war—it could reach speeds of 550 mph (480 kn; 890 km/h)[citation needed]. (5,262 kg) which was more than twice the weight of its contemporaries such as the. The P-47 Thunderbolt was designed by Alexander Kartveli, a man of Georgian descent. A small number of Republic P-43 Lancers were built but Republic had been working on an improved P-44 Rocket with a more powerful engine, as well as on the AP-10 fighter design. The initial version of this article was based on a public domain article from Greg Goebel's Vectorsite. P-47 pilots frequently carried two 500 lb (230 kg) bombs, using skip bombing techniques for difficult targets (skipping bombs into railroad tunnels to destroy hidden enemy trains was a favorite tactic). In 1948, the Chinese Nationalists employed 70 P-47Ds and 42 P-47Ns brought to Taiwan in 1952. The P-47 Thunderbolt, nicknamed the Jug, served the United States Army Air Corps (USAAF) in World War II, and 15,636 were built between 1941 and 1945. ", "Republic P-47D-30-RA Thunderbolt (Long Description).". (The XP-44 Rocket was based on the P-43 Lancer airframe with a radial engine and never made it past the mock-up stage.) A present-day U.S. ground-attack aircraft, the Fairchild Republic A-10 Thunderbolt II, takes its name from the P-47. The USAAC issued new requirements which included: • Airspeed of 400 mph at 25,000 feet. Seversky P-35, the XP-41, P-43 Lancer and XP-44 Rocket. In the post-war era one Air National Guard Thunderbolt plowed into the second story of a factory, shearing off its wings, with the crumpled fuselage eventually coming to rest inside the building; the pilot walked away alive.[75]. Pilots would often claim that one could fly a P-47 through a brick wall and live. Lake, Jon. Exhaust gases were piped back separately to the turbine and expelled through the turbine exhaust duct in the bottom of the fuselage. Test pilot Aleksey N. Grinchik noted the spacious cockpit with good ventilation and a good all-around view. Updated October 7, 2014. I feel genuinely sorry for the modern fighter pilot who has never had the chance to get his hands on a Spitfire—he will never know what real flying was like. At high altitude, she was a hot ship and very fast in the dive; the technique was not to mix it with the enemy, but to pounce on him from above, make one quick pass and get back up to altitude; if anyone tried to escape from a Thunderbolt by diving, we had him cold.