Winston Churchill who served as the prime minister of UK from 1940 to 1945 also referred to the flag as the Union Jack. 2. [73] While consultation on new guidelines is under way, the decision to fly the flag may be made by each government department. [72], In July 2007, then-Prime Minister Gordon Brown unveiled plans to have the Union Flag flown more often from government buildings. The Union Flag has no official status in the United Kingdom, and there are no national regulations concerning its use or prohibitions against flag desecration. Few flags are as recognizable as the Union Jack, the national flag of the United Kingdom. What happened on this day in history. While the Flags Act 1953 states that Australians still have the "right or privilege" to fly the Union Jack after the introduction of the Australian National Flag, usage of the Union Jack by itself is unusual. The Largest Shopping Malls In The United Kingdom, The Most Popular Sports in the United Kingdom, The Busiest Cargo Ports in the United Kingdom, Types Of Crimes By Number Of Offenses In The US. The Union Jack is composed of the flags of three patron saints layered one over the other. This far-reaching influence is still seen today in the incorporation of the Union Jack in other national flags such as that of Australia. There’s a rumour that it’s not actually called the Union Jack. [25], The Butcher's Apron is a pejorative term for the flag, common among Irish republicans, citing the blood-streaked appearance of the flag and referring to atrocities committed in Ireland and other countries under British colonial rule. Image based on the reproduction of Draft C published in “Perrin” plate IV. [9], According to the Parliament of the United Kingdom:[10][11] "Until the early 17th century England and Scotland were two entirely independent kingdoms. Likewise, Westmoreland County, Pennsylvania, has been known to fly a flag containing the King's Colours since 1973.[105]. It can be traced back to 1823 when it was created as a signal flag, but not intended as a civil jack. [82] From 1911 to 1956, schools in South Australia were required to fly the Union Jack for the "national salute". [78], The Flags and Heraldry Committee, an all-party parliamentary group lobbying for official standards, cooperated with the Flag Institute in 2010 to publish a set of recommended guidelines for the flag's display and use as a symbol. This is counterchanged with the saltire of St Andrew, such that the white always follows the red clockwise. The Union Jack - CLIL - History and Geography. She f… However, in the 2010s, the Union Flag, along with the colonial flag of Hong Kong began to see use by supporters of the pro-democracy camp during the 2014 Hong Kong protests, and the 2019–20 Hong Kong protests. The Union Jack, or Union Flag, is the national flag of the United Kingdom.The flag also has official status in Canada, by parliamentary resolution, where it is known as the Royal Union Flag. This changed dramatically in 1603 on the death of Elizabeth I of England. The UK has several national symbols some of which are unique to its constituent countries. [96], The Union Flag was formerly used in Hong Kong when it was a British Dependent Territory. However, the fact that it was likely that Northern Ireland would choose not to remain part of the Irish Free State after its foundation and remain in the United Kingdom, gave better grounds for keeping the cross of St. Patrick in the Union Jack. "The following is a list of stations at which the national flag (Union Jack) is authorised to be hoisted on anniversaries only, or when specially required for saluting purposes." The Union Jack, or Union Flag, is the flag of the United Kingdom. The Union Jack was to be flown alongside the National Flag at the Houses of Parliament, from the principal government buildings in the capitals, at Union ports, on government offices abroad, and at such other places as the government might determine. The Union Jack is a fine expression of unity as well as diversity. What Is The Meaning Behind The Colors of The Flag of The United Kingdom? The history behind the Union Jack has been one of gradual evolution of the flag as the relationships between the four 'nations' of England, Wales, Scotland and Ireland (now just Northern Ireland) have developed over time. The Union Jack is the third quarter of the 1939 coat of arms of Alabama, which is used on the flag of the Governor of Alabama, representing British sovereignty over the state prior to 1783. In this regard, Sir James Craig, the Prime Minister of Northern Ireland remarked in December 1921 that he and his government were "glad to think that our decision [to remain part of United Kingdom] will obviate the necessity of mutilating the Union Jack. The cross of England’s patron saint had developed as a national symbol of England from 1277 onward and was borne on armour, clothing and small flags. Newfoundland and Labrador uses a flag that was derived from the Union Flag, with the Union Jack serving as the flag of Newfoundland until 1980. [100] Although a small number of Hongkongers seek direct British intervention into the matter, the majority of those that used the Union Flag or the colonial flag of Hong Kong during the protests do not hold such beliefs. [88] When used to represent the United Kingdom, the Union Flag takes precedence before the flag of a Canadian province/territory. The flag consists of three heraldic crosses. "[30], The Union Jack is normally twice as long as it is tall, a ratio of 1:2. The Union Flag or Union Jack Flag is the official flag of the UK which includes Northern Ireland. A YouGov poll showed less than half of the UK population knows the history or even how to correctly fly the Union Flag … which may also be called the Union Jack. Baton Rouge was a British colony from the time of the Seven Years' War until the end of the American Revolutionary War, when it was captured by Spanish forces. There is reason to think that cloth flags of this design were employed during the 17th century for unofficial use on Scottish vessels at sea. So - “…the jack flag had existed for over a hundred and fifty years before the jack staff…”. In 1606 the first Union Flag appeared. Why is it called Union Jack? The Navy Ship was commonly used by the UK and its colonies with the British ship using the jack staff or the pole for the flag and was attached to the bow of the ship. The history of the Union Jack started out with England alone and was eventually borne out by its conquests of Scotland in 1707 and merging with Ireland in 1801. What Is The Meaning Behind The Colors of The Flag of The United Kingdom? On this day in history in 1606, the Union Jack was created. Symbols from the colonial powers France and Spain are also incorporated into the Baton Rouge flag. When a ship is underway, the Union Jack is only flown from the jackstaff when the ship is dressed for a special occasion, such as the Queen's official birthday. The Union Flag also appears in the canton (upper flagstaff-side quarter) of the flags of several nations and territories that are former British possessions or dominions, as well as the state flag of Hawaii. Within the Almanac, neither the Union Flag nor the Union Jack are included pictorially or mentioned by name. The current and second Union Jack dates from 1 January 1801 with the Act of Union 1800, which merged the Kingdom of Ireland and the Kingdom of Great Britain to form the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. The flag was also used by the US in its first flag. A Reading Comprehension to be used after a CLIL lesson on Geography. The current flag's design has been in use since 1801. [41], The Kingdom of Ireland, which had existed as a personal union with England since 1541, was likewise unrepresented in the original versions of the Union Jack. [55] However, the Queen and her Council approved Sir Henry's original effort, numbered "one". [97][98] The flag has also been displayed at other pro-democracy events in Hong Kong, including the new year marches and the 1 July marches. The flag of the Municipal Council of Shanghai International Settlement in 1869 contained multiple flags to symbolize the countries have participated in the creation and management of this enclave in the Chinese city of Shanghai. Although the colour schemes are official, not all of the colours are completely congruent. In 2003, a private individual started a campaign – dubbed "reflag" or "Union Black" – to ntroduce black stripes in the Union Jack in order to represent the increasing diversity in the United Kingdom. While most of the former colonies of the British Empire have chosen to omit the Union Jack in the new national flags, some countries such as Australia and New Zealand have chosen to keep the Union Jack as a symbol of their British heritage. There’s a Right Way to Display It. In addition to those already mentioned, they were the Union Buildings (Pretoria), the head offices of the four provincial administrations, the supreme courts, certain magistrates' courts, customs houses, and three buildings in Durban (the general post office, the railway station, and the local military district headquarters). Since she died childless and was unmarried, the crown was given to James VI who was her cousin and also the king of Scotland. The Union Flag is flown at half mast from the announcement of the death of the Sovereign (save for Proclamation Day), or upon command of the Sovereign. UK is a constitutional monarchy with Queen Elizabeth II being the sitting monarch. The pennant flying on Britannia's boat in this 1793 James Gillray cartoon is considerably different from the present flag. The flag also has official status in Canada, by parliamentary resolution, where it is known as the Royal Union Flag. The flag of the Province of British Columbia, Canada, The flag of the Province of Ontario, Canada, The flag of the Province of Manitoba, Canada, The flag of the Province of Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada, The flag of the British Indian Ocean Territory, The flag of the United States (1775–1777) later named the Grand Union Flag, The flag of the United States of the Ionian Islands (1815–1864), The flag of the Tamatave Kingdom (1822–1828), The flag of the Cook Islands Federation (1893–1901), The flag of British Heligoland (1807–1890), 1943 version of the flag of Malta until 1964, 1957 version of the Canadian civil ensign, used until 1965, The flag of British Trinidad and Tobago (1958–1962), Oranje-blanje-blou, or the flag of South Africa (1928–1994), The flag of Dominion of Newfoundland (1907-1931). Union Jack History. "[106] The Flag Institute listed the white bordered Union Flag as "Civil Jack".[13]. The term "Union Jack" refers to the flag being a union between three national flags. The version used is the modern flag, whereas the 1707 flag would have been used in colonial Alabama. [47] Although documents accompanying this complaint which contained drafts for alternative designs have been lost, evidence exists, at least on paper, of an unofficial Scottish variant, whereby the Scottish cross was uppermost. The term "Union Flag" is used in King Charles I's 1634 proclamation: ... none of Our Subjects, of any of Our Nations and Kingdoms shall from henceforth presume to carry the Union Flag in the Main top, or other part of any of their Ships (that is) St Georges cross and St Andrew's Cross joined together upon pain of Our high displeasure, but that the same Union Flag be still reserved as an ornament proper for Our own Ships and Ships in our immediate Service and Pay, and none other."[17]. The Miskito people sometimes use a similar flag that also incorporates the Union Jack in its canton, due to long periods of contact in the Mosquito Coast. The Kingdom of Ireland was also not represented in the original version of the flag with the flag of the Protectorate between 1658 and 1660 escutcheoned with the Ireland’s arms. More recently, Reed's Nautical Almanac (1990 edition) unambiguously stated: "The Union Flag, frequently but incorrectly referred to as the Union Jack, ..." and later: "8. At the suggestion of the Scots representatives, the designs for consideration included that version of Union Jack showing the Cross of Saint Andrew uppermost; identified as being the "Scotts union flagg as said to be used by the Scotts". Roger Stern and John Byrne introduced Chapman in Captain America #253 (January 1981); in the story he is visits his friend Kenneth Crichton, grandson of original Union Jack Lord Falsworth, at Falsworth Manor and ends up putting on the costume to help Captain America in his final battle against Baron Blood.. 1990s publications In this version, the innermost points of the lower left and upper right diagonals of the St Patrick's cross are cut off or truncated. On April 12, 1606, a new flag was established with the flag of Kingdom of England, and that of Scotland put together to create the flag of the UK and the first ever union flag. Newfoundland retained the use of the Union Flag as the official flag of the province after it joined Canadian confederation in 1949. As it appears in the London Gazette, the broad stripe is where expected for three of the four quarters, but the upper left quarter shows the broad stripe below. For other uses, see, Flag speculation after Irish independence, It has been claimed that "Union Jack" was the name given to the flag flown on the ", Graham Bartram (born 1963), a British vexillologist who is, as of 2013, by the 1970s, "its current official dimension of l/30th the width of the flag". The Court of the Lord Lyon, which has legal jurisdiction in heraldic matters in Scotland, confirms that the Union Jack "is the correct flag for all citizens and corporate bodies of the United Kingdom to fly to demonstrate their loyalty and their nationality. The new design added a red saltire, the cross of Saint Patrick, for Ireland. For comparison with another anglophone country with a large navy: the Jack of the United States specifically refers to the flag flown from the jackstaff of a warship, auxiliary or other U.S. governmental entity. Union Jack. [41] In 1634, King Charles I restricted its use to the royal ships. The Union Jack - CLIL - History and Geography. Union Jack History continued. [38] The 3:5 version is most commonly used by the British Army and is sometimes known as the War flag. – discuss]. In 1980, the flag of Newfoundland was adopted as the new provincial flag, with the design for the new flag of Newfoundland being derived from the Union Flag. Honours and Salutes. Thus, at the time of the flag's design the cross of St George represented all of England and Wales. Then, during the reign of Queen Anne, the parliaments of England and Scotland were united to form the new nation of Great Britain, and Anne officially adopted the 101 year old banner as the national flag of the newly created nation. The interior core of the Union Jack is the English flag, represented by the Cross of St. George the patron saint of England. Wales had no explicit recognition in the Union Jack as it had been a part of the Kingdom of England since being annexed by Edward I of England in 1282 and its full integration by the Laws in Wales Acts 1535–1542, and was therefore represented by the flag of England. The Union Jack was used by the United States in its first flag, the Grand Union Flag. [86] However, on the following day, the Canadian parliament passed another resolution that designated the Union Flag as the Royal Union Flag, and authorized its official use as the symbol of the country's membership in the Commonwealth of Nations, and its allegiance to the Crown. The history of the Union Jack started out with England alone and was eventually borne out by its conquests of Scotland in 1707 and merging with Ireland in 1801. It comprises of three flags - England, Scotland, and St Patricks (representing Ireland) After Queen Elizabeth I of England died in 1603, King James VI of Scotland inherited the English throne and became King James I of England. The use of the Union Flag on land by the civilians has been permitted, but the use at sea has been restricted to only the military. In March of 1899, Churchill wrote to his mother from India about her plans to produce a new trans-Atlantic magazine, to be called The Anglo-Saxon Review. A Reading Comprehension to be used after a CLIL lesson on Geography. According to Lord Lyon, the Union Jack is the right flag for the people and the corporate bodies of the UK. A compromise was reached in which both flags were flown on official buildings. This is due to different specifications for different types of media (for example, screen and print). [8] The flag combines aspects of three older national flags: the red cross of St George for the Kingdom of England, the white saltire of St Andrew for Scotland and the red saltire of St Patrick to represent Ireland. The Bill sought to formalise the position of the Union Flag as the national flag of the UK in law, to remove legal obstacles to its regular display and to officially recognise the name 'Union Jack' as having equal status with 'Union Flag'. La bandiera del Regno Unito (comunemente Union Flag o Union Jack) fu adottata nel 1801 in seguito all'atto di unione con il quale il Regno di Gran Bretagna e il Regno d'Irlanda si univano a formare il Regno Unito di Gran Bretagna e Irlanda.Derivata da una versione precedente adottata nel 1606, è anche stata la bandiera rappresentativa dell'Impero britannico. 'South Africa's Dual Flag Arrangement, 1928-1957' in, Lord Howe's action, or the Glorious First of June, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, Minister for Culture, Creative Industries and Tourism, Flags Regulations (Northern Ireland) 2000, Services in the Internal Market Directive 2006, List of countries and territories with the Union Jack displayed on their flag, flag of the British Indian Ocean Territory, flag of the United States of the Ionian Islands, Learn how and when to remove this template message, "The official website of The British Monarchy", "Statement by the Hon. While officers had their clubs, servicemen below commissioned rank had nowhere reputable to stay with their families in the nation’s capital. In 1938, Brian's father, Lord Montgomery Falsworth, was outraged at British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlin's policy of appeasement towards Adolf Hitler's German regime. However; the flag gained regular in the Kingdom of Britain after the Acts of Union in 1707. The flag is mounted on warships and submarines commissioned by the Royal Navy and also on air force vessels. "[citation needed] It remains a criminal offence under the Merchant Shipping Act 1995[70] to display the Union Flag (other than the "pilot jack" – see below) from a British ship. The Union Jack, or Union Flag, is the national flag of the United Kingdom.The flag also has official status in Canada, by parliamentary resolution, where it is known as the Royal Union Flag. The United Kingdom, or Britain, is found in Western Europe. Other possible changes include the abolition of the title of the United Kingdom, and the removal of the harp from the Royal Standard and the Coat of Arms, and the substitution of the Ulster emblem.[58]. As with the red cross, so too the red saltire is separated by a white fimbriation from the blue field. The British flag is called the \"Union Jack\", an expression that needs to be explained. The claim that the term Union Jack properly refers only to naval usage has been disputed, following historical investigations by the Flag Institute in 2013. However, Section 2 regards the "British flag", and states that "The flag which every British ship is entitled to fly is the Red Ensign (without any defacement or modification) and, subject to (a warrant from Her Majesty or from the Secretary of State, or an Order of Council from her Majesty regarding a defaced Red Ensign), no other colours. The Union Jack The term "Jack" was applied in deference to King James, the Latin form of which is Jacobus, the equivalent in Hebrew being Jacob. Appearing in later editions of Theatrum Scotiae, the North East View of Edinburgh Castle engraving depicts the Scotch (to use the appropriate adjective of that period) version of the Union Flag flying from the Palace block of the Castle. But, … This could imply that there was still some use of a Scottish variant before the addition of the cross of St Patrick to the Union Flag in 1801.[50]. Probably it will be found that the deletion is not absolutely necessary. Hawaii, a state of the United States but located in the central Pacific, incorporates the Union Jack in its state flag. This is not the equivalent of the ensigns of the other armed services but is used at recruiting and military or sporting events, when the army needs to be identified but the reverence and ceremony due to the regimental flags and the Union Jack would be inappropriate. Thus, there is a correct side up. [63] He said the Union Jack currently only represented the other three UK nations, and Minister for Culture, Creative Industries and Tourism Margaret Hodge conceded that Lucas had raised a valid point for debate. The Queen's Harbour Master's flag, like the Pilot Jack, is a 1:2 flag that contains a white-bordered Union Flag that is longer than 1:2. [55], A manuscript compiled in 1785 by William Fox and in possession of the Flag Research Center includes a full plate showing "the scoth [sic] union" flag. It is the British flag. National flag of the United Kingdom.The earl of Nottingham's designs after the accession of James I and VI yielded to the 1606 superimposition of the red cross of St George (), bordered by its own white field, upon the saltire of St Andrew on a blue field.An Irish harp at the centre was added by Cromwell but withdrawn after the Restoration. The Union Jack has been the paramount ensign of Britain and her company of nations ever since the period of their phenomenal worldwide expansion. The proposal was universally met with opposition and was denounced by MSP Phil Gallie as "ridiculous tokenism [that] would do nothing to stamp out racism". John Cabot could have unfurled the Cross of St. George — consisting of a red cross on a white field — in 1497 when he claimed North America for the English Crown. The Hawaiian king then adopted and flew the flag as a symbol of his own royal authority not recognising its national derivation. [100] Several Hongkongers that hold British National (Overseas) passports who used the flag during the protests were doing so as a call to the British government to grant British National (Overseas) the right to abode in the United Kingdom. In 1603, James VI of Scotland inherited the English and Irish thrones (as James I), thereby uniting the crowns of England, Scotland and Ireland (which remained separate states) in a personal union. [100] Some pro-democracy protestors that flew foreign flags, including the Union Flag, did so in an effort to attract international media attention to the protests, while others did so in an effort to irritate the central government of China. The Union Flag is sometimes known as the Union Jack after its creator, James I of England, James VI of Scots. It tells the story of the Union Jack. A thin white stripe, or fimbriation, separates the red cross from the blue field, in accordance with heraldry's rule of tincture where colours (like red and blue) must be separated from each other by metals (like white, i.e. [21], The size and power of the Royal Navy internationally at the time could also explain why the flag was named the "Union Jack"; considering the navy was so widely utilised and renowned by the United Kingdom and colonies, it is possible that the term jack occurred because of its regular use on all British ships using the jackstaff (a flag pole attached to the bow of a ship). Naval ships will fly the white ensign, merchant and private boats can fly the red ensign, others with special permission such as naval yacht clubs can fly the blue ensign. The flag is also flown beside Customs House in Loftus Street, Sydney, to mark the approximate location at which Captain Phillip first raised the Union Jack, and claimed New South Wales in 1788. James Montgomery FalsworthBrian FalsworthJoseph ChapmanKenneth CrichtonVampire Avengers(Earth-3931)Union JacksEarth X(Earth-9997) "[71], On 5 February 2008, Conservative MP Andrew Rosindell introduced the 'Union Flag Bill' as a private member's bill under the 10 Minute Rule in the House of Commons. This status was confirmed to an extent by the Merchant Shipping (Registration, etc.) [53] On the North Prospect of the City of Edenburgh engraving, the flag is indistinct. The history behind the Union Jack has been one of gradual evolution of the flag as the relationships between the four 'nations' of England, Wales, Scotland and Ireland (now just Northern Ireland) have developed over time. The Union Flag was also the formal flag for the Dominion of Newfoundland, a separate dominion of the British Empire from 1907 to 1949. Taunton, Massachusetts, used a flag with the old style Union Flag by a resolution on October 19, 1974. The word "jack" was in use before 1600 to describe the maritime bow flag. Pre-1801 Union flag at the historic Fort York, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, The Scottish Union flag at Lennoxlove House, East Lothian, Scotland, The Ulster Covenant, signed in 1912 by Sir Edward Carson on a Union flag table. It’s not symmetrical. Few flags are as recognizable as the Union Jack, the national flag of the United Kingdom. The Union Jack is composed of the flags of three patron saints layered one over the other. There’s a prevalent urban myth that its … The first "Jack" came into use when James VI of Scotland became king also of England in 1603. The arrangement has introduced a requirement to display the flag "the right way up"; see specifications for flag use, above. Because the Queen died unmarried and childless, the English crown passed to the next available heir, her cousin James VI, King of Scotland. [32] In the 19th century, the Union flag was defined by the same blazon but could vary in its geometrical proportions. It is often displayed upside down inadvertently—even on commercially-made hand waving flags. There are various theories as to how it became known as the ‘Union Jack’. [5][6][note 2]. No unique name was given to it during the royal proclamation. Publication history 1980s publications. [83], In 1953, the Australian blue ensign was named the national flag of Australia, through the Flags Act 1953. The arguments between the two grew more heated as time passed, until finally Brian left home because of them. The Union Jack 1. Miss McCaul’s tireless fundraising efforts began in 1903 with concerts, entertainment and events throughout the country. "Symbol of Unity") is the official flag of the United Kingdom, and a spiritual artifact used by the royalty of England and is the foundation of power controlled by Curtana Original and Curtana Second. The original flag appears in the canton of the Commissioners' Ensign of the Northern Lighthouse Board. [20], It is often stated that a flag upside down is a form of distress signal or even a deliberate insult. [88], The parliamentary resolution requires the Royal Union Flag to be flown alongside the flag of Canada (if there are at least two flag poles available) at federal government buildings, federally-operated airports, military installations, at the masthead of Royal Canadian Navy ships within Canadian waters, and other appropriate establishments on Commonwealth Day, Victoria Day (the monarch's official birthday in Canada), 11 December (the anniversary of the enactment of the Statute of Westminster 1931), and when otherwise instructed to do so by the National Defence Headquarters. As former British Empire nations were granted independence, these and other versions of the Union Flag were decommissioned. Outside the UK, the Union Jack is usually part of a special ensign in which it is placed in the upper left hand corner of a blue field, with a signifying crest in the bottom right. On the plaque it is referred to as the "Jack of Queen Anne". 1902 Rows of Union flags line each side of The Mall, London. The current flag has a dark navy blue which traces its origin from the Royal Navy’s Blue Squadron. As the two flags had to be the same size, it meant that the Union Jack was made in the ratio 2:3 rather than the usual 1:2. The Union Flag was found in the canton (upper flagstaff-side quarter) of the flags of many colonies of Britain, while the field (background) of their flags was the colour of the naval ensign flown by the particular Royal Navy squadron that patrolled that region of the world. Union Jack at crossing sends mixed message - Ottawa - CBC News", "Flags of New Zealand Page 3 - Union Jack", "Italian beach operators hoist British flag in protest at EU law", "Flag-waving Grandma Wong gives Hong Kong protesters lesson in endurance", "Colonial nostalgia rules in Hong Kong as young refuse to accept China's authority", "Explainer: The conflicting messages behind protesters' use of the colonial Hong Kong flag", "Are Hong Kong protesters pro-American or British when they wave the US and UK flags? In 1606, it was combined with the cross saltire of … [74], The current flag days where the Union Flag should be flown from government buildings throughout the UK are:[75], In addition, the Union Flag should be flown in the following areas on specified days:[75]. The pre-1801 Union Flag also sees limited use by private organizations, most notably the United Empire Loyalists Association of Canada.[104]. It tells the story of the Union Jack. "[13] The institute also notes: .mw-parser-output .templatequote{overflow:hidden;margin:1em 0;padding:0 40px}.mw-parser-output .templatequote .templatequotecite{line-height:1.5em;text-align:left;padding-left:1.6em;margin-top:0}, it is often stated that the Union Flag should only be described as the Union Jack when flown in the bows of a warship, but this is a relatively recent idea. However, on 23 April, St George's Day, it is the Union Flag of the United Kingdom that is flown over UK government offices in England.